On January 26, 1989, OSHA issued safety and health program management guidelines for use by employers to prevent occupational injuries and illnesses. The language in these guidelines is general so that it may be broadly applied in general industry, shipyards, marine terminals, and longshoring activities regardless of the size, nature, or complexity of operations.
The guidelines consist of program elements which represent a distillation of applied safety and health management practices that are used by employers who are successful in protecting the safety and health of their employees. These program elements are advocated by many safety and health professionals and consultants.
They were strongly endorsed by individuals, corporations, professional associations, and labor representatives as a necessary, positive direction for an effective safety and health program.
OSHA has concluded that effective management of worker safety and health protection is a decisive factor in reducing the extent and severity of work-related injuries and illnesses. Effective management addresses all work-related hazards, including those potential hazards which could result from a change in worksite conditions or practices. It addresses hazards whether or not they are regulated by government standards.
OSHA has evaluated many worksites in its enforcement program. These evaluations have revealed a basic relationship between effective management of worker safety and health protection and a low incidence and severity of employee injuries. Such management also correlates with the elimination or adequate control of employee exposure to toxic substances and other unhealthful conditions.
There are many positive side effects from a strong safety and health program, not the least of which is improved employee morale and productivity, as well as a significant reduction of worker compensation costs and other less obvious costs of work-related injuries and illnesses.
OSHA urges all employers to meet the following guidelines in a manner which addresses the specific operations and conditions of their worksites.
(a) General. (1) Employers are advised and encouraged to institute and maintain in their establishments a program which provides systematic policies, procedures, and practices that are adequate to recognize and protect their employees from occupational safety and health hazards.
(2) An effective program includes provisions for the systematic identification, evaluation, and prevention or control of general workplace hazards, specific job hazards, and potential hazards which may arise from foreseeable conditions.
(3) Although compliance with the law, including specific OSHA standards, is an important objective, an effective program looks beyond specific requirements of law to address all hazards. It will seek to prevent injuries and illnesses whether or not compliance is at issue.
(4) The extent to which the program is described in writing is less important than how effective it is in practice. As the size of a worksite or the complexity of a hazardous operation increases, however, the need for written guidance increases to ensure clear communication of policies and priorities and consistent and fair application of rules.
(b) Major Elements. An effective occupational safety and health program will include the following four elements. To implement these elements, it will include the actions described in paragraph (c).
(1) Management commitment and employee involvement are complementary. Management commitment provides the motivating force and the resources for organizing and controlling activities within an organization. In an effective program, management regards worker safety and health as a fundamental value of the organization and applies its commitment to safety and health protection with as much vigor as to other organizational purposes. Employee involvement provides the means through which workers develop and/or express their own commitment to safety and health protection, for themselves and for their fellow workers.
(2) Worksite analysis involves a variety of worksite examinations, to identify not only existing hazards but also conditions and operations in which changes might occur to create hazards. Unawareness of a hazard which stems from failure to examine the worksite is a sure sign that safety and health policies and/or practices are ineffective. Effective management actively analyzes the work and worksite, to anticipate and prevent occurrences.
(3) Hazard prevention and control are triggered by a determination that a hazard or potential hazard exists. Where feasible, hazards are prevented by effective design of the job site or job. Where it is not feasible to eliminate them, they are controlled to prevent unsafe and unhealthful exposure. Elimination or control is accomplished in a timely manner, once a hazard or potential hazard is recognized.
(4) Safety and health training addresses the safety and health responsibilities of all personnel concerned with the site, whether salaried or hourly. It is often most effective when incorporated into other training about performance requirements and job practices. Its complexity depends on the size and complexity of the worksite, and the nature of the hazards and potential hazards at the site.
(c) Recommended Actions. (1) Management Commitment and Employee Involvement. (i) State clearly a worksite policy on safe and healthful work and working conditions, so that all personnel with responsibility at the site and personnel at other locations with responsibility for the site understand the priority of safety and health protection in relation to other organizational values.
(ii) Establish and communicate a clear goal for the safety and health program and objectives for meeting that goal, so that all members of the organization understand the results desired and the measure planned for achieving them.
(iii) Provide visible top management involvement in implementing the program, so that all will understand that management's commitment is serious.
(iv) Provide for and encourage employee involvement in the structure and operation of the program and in decisions that affect their safety and health, so that they will commit their insight and energy to achieving the safety and health program's goal and objectives.
(v) Assign and communicate responsibility for all aspects of the program, so that managers, supervisors, and employees in all parts of the organization know what performance is expected of them.
(vi) Provide adequate authority and resources to responsible parties, so that assigned responsibilities can be met.
(vii) Hold managers, supervisors, and employees accountable for meeting their responsibilities, so that essential tasks will be performed.
(viii) Review program operations at least annually to evaluate their success in meeting the goal and objectives, so that deficiencies can be identified and the program and/or the objectives can be revised when they do not meet the goal of effective safety and health protection.
(2) Worksite Analysis. (i) So that all hazards are identified:
(A) Conduct comprehensive baseline worksite surveys for safety and health and periodic comprehensive update surveys;
(B) Analyze planned and new facilities, processes, materials, and equipment; and
(C) Perform routine job hazard analyses.
(ii) Provide for regular site safety and health inspections, so that new or previously missed hazards and failures in hazard controls are identified.
(iii) So that employee insight and experience in safety and health protection may be utilized and employee concerns may be addressed, provide a reliable system for employees, without fear of reprisal, to notify management personnel about conditions that appear hazardous and to receive timely and appropriate responses: and encourage employees to use the system.
(iv) Provide for investigation of accidents and "near miss" incidents, so that their causes and means for their prevention are identified.
(v) Analyze injury and illness trends over time, so that patterns with common causes can be identified and prevented.
(3) Hazard Prevention and Control. (i) So that all current and potential hazards, however detected, are corrected or controlled in a timely manner, establish procedures for that purpose, using the following measures:
(A) Engineering techniques where feasible and appropriate;
(B) Procedures for safe work which are understood and followed by all affected parties, as a result of training, positive reinforcement, correction of unsafe performance, and, if necessary, enforcement through a clearly communicated disciplinary system;
(C) Provision of personal protective equipment; and
(D) Administrative controls, such as reducing the duration of exposure.
(ii) Provide for facility and equipment maintenance, so that hazardous breakdown is prevented.
(iii) Plan and prepare for emergencies, and conduct training and drills as needed, so that the response of all parties to emergencies will be "second nature."
(iv) Establish a medical program which includes availability of first aid on site and of physician and emergency medical care nearby, so that harm will be minimized if an injury or illness does occur.
(4) Safety and Health Training. (i) Ensure that all employees understand the hazards to which they may be exposed and how to prevent harm to themselves and others from exposure to these hazards, so that employees accept and follow established safety and health protections.
(ii) So that supervisors will carry out their safety and health responsibilities effectively, ensure that they understand those responsibilities and the reasons for them, including:
(A) Analyzing the work under their supervision to identify unrecognized potential hazards;
(B) Maintaining physical protections in their work areas; and
(C) Reinforcing employee training on the nature of potential hazards in their work and on needed protective measures, through continual performance feedback and, if necessary, through enforcement of safe work practices.
(iii) Ensure that managers understand their safety and health responsibilities, as described under (c)(1), "Management Commitment and Employee Involvement," so that the managers will effectively carry out those responsibilities.